Our Crude Oil business consists of an integrated set of pipeline, terminalling, and acquisition and marketing assets that service the movement of crude oil from producers to end-user markets.
Crude Oil Pipelines
The crude oil pipelines consist of approximately 6,100 miles of crude oil trunk and gathering pipelines in the southwest and midwest United States, including our wholly-owned interest in West Texas Gulf and PET; and a controlling financial interest in Mid-Valley Pipeline Company ("Mid-Valley"). Additionally, we have equity ownership interests in two crude oil pipelines. Our pipelines provide access to several trading hubs, including the largest trading hub for crude oil in the United States located in Cushing, Oklahoma, and other trading hubs located in Midland, Colorado City and Longview, Texas. Our crude oil pipelines also deliver to and connect with other pipelines that deliver crude oil to a number of refineries.
Revenues throughout our crude oil pipeline systems are generated from tariffs paid by shippers utilizing our transportation services. These tariffs are filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commissions ("FERC") and other state regulatory agencies, as applicable.
Southwest United States Pipelines
Our pipelines include crude oil trunk pipelines and crude oil gathering pipelines in Texas. This includes our Permian Express 2 pipeline project which provides takeaway capacity from the Permian Basin, with origins in multiple locations in Western Texas: Midland, Garden City and Colorado City. With an initial capacity of approximately 200 thousand barrels per day, Permian Express 2 began delivery to multiple refiners and markets in the third quarter 2015. Our fourth quarter 2016 acquisition of a West Texas crude oil system from Vitol and the remaining ownership interest in PET facilitates connection of our Permian Express 2 pipeline to terminal assets in Midland and Garden City, Texas.
In the third quarter 2016, we commenced operations on the Delaware Basin Extension and Permian Longview and Louisiana Extension pipeline projects. The Delaware Basin Extension pipeline project provides shippers with new takeaway capacity from the rapidly growing Delaware Basin area in New Mexico and West Texas to Midland, Texas. The project has initial capacity to transport approximately 100 thousand barrels per day. The Permian Longview and Louisiana Extension pipeline project provides takeaway capacity for approximately 100 thousand additional barrels per day out of the Permian Basin at Midland, Texas to be transported to the Longview, Texas area as well as destinations in Louisiana utilizing a combination of our proprietary crude oil system as well as third party pipelines. We own and operate crude oil pipeline and gathering systems in Oklahoma. We have the ability to deliver substantially all of the crude oil gathered on our Oklahoma system to Cushing. We are one of the largest purchasers of crude oil from producers in the state, and our crude oil acquisition and marketing activities business is the primary shipper on our Oklahoma crude oil system.
Midwest United States Pipelines
We own a controlling financial interest in the Mid-Valley pipeline system which originates in Longview, Texas and passes through Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio, and terminates in Samaria, Michigan. This pipeline provides crude oil to a number of refineries, primarily in the midwest United States. In addition, we own a crude oil pipeline that runs from Marysville, Michigan to Toledo, Ohio, and a truck injection point for local production at Marysville. This pipeline receives crude oil from the Enbridge Mainline Pipeline system for delivery to refineries located in Toledo, Ohio and to Marathon's Samaria, Michigan tank farm, which supplies its refinery in Detroit, Michigan.
The Nederland terminal, located on the Sabine-Neches waterway between Beaumont and Port Arthur, Texas, is a large marine terminal providing storage and distribution services for refiners and other large transporters of crude oil and NGLs. The terminal receives, stores, and distributes crude oil and bunker oils (used for fueling ships and other marine vessels), and has a total crude oil storage capacity of approximately 26 million barrels in approximately 150 aboveground storage tanks with individual capacities of up to 660 thousand barrels.
The Nederland terminal can receive crude oil at each of its five ship docks and three barge berths. The five ship docks are capable of receiving over 2 million barrels of crude oil per day. In addition to our crude oil pipelines, the terminal can also receive crude oil through a number of third-party pipelines, including the Department of Energy (“DOE”). The DOE pipelines connect the terminal to the United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve's West Hackberry caverns at Hackberry, Louisiana and Big Hill near Winnie, Texas, which have an aggregate storage capacity of approximately 395 million barrels.
The Nederland terminal can deliver crude oil via pipeline, barge and ship. The terminal has two ship docks and three barge berths that are capable of delivering crude oils for international transport. In total, the terminal is capable of delivering over 2 million barrels of crude oil per day to our crude oil pipelines or a number of third-party pipelines, including the DOE. The Nederland terminal generates crude oil revenues primarily by providing term or spot storage services and throughput capabilities to a number of customers.
Fort Mifflin Terminal Complex
The Fort Mifflin Terminal Complex is located on the Delaware River in Philadelphia and includes the Fort Mifflin Terminal, the Hog Island Wharf, the Darby Creek Tank Farm and connecting pipelines. Revenues are generated at the Fort Mifflin Terminal Complex by charging fees based on throughput.
The Fort Mifflin Terminal contains two ship docks with freshwater drafts and a total storage capacity of approximately 570 thousand barrels. Crude oil enters the Fort Mifflin Terminal primarily from marine vessels on the Delaware River. One Fort Mifflin dock is designed to handle crude oil from very large crude carrier-class ("VLCC") tankers and smaller crude oil vessels.
The other dock can accommodate only smaller crude oil vessels. The Hog Island Wharf is located next to the Fort Mifflin Terminal on the Delaware River and receives crude oil via two ship docks, one of which can accommodate crude oil tankers and smaller crude oil vessels, and the other of which can accommodate some smaller crude oil vessels.
The Darby Creek Tank Farm is a crude oil storage terminal for the Philadelphia refinery, which is operated by Philadelphia Energy Solutions ("PES") under a joint venture with Sunoco, Inc. ("Sunoco"). This facility has a total storage capacity of approximately 3 million barrels. Darby Creek receives crude oil from the Fort Mifflin Terminal and Hog Island Wharf via our pipelines. The tank farm then stores the crude oil and transports it to the Philadelphia refinery via our pipelines.
Eagle Point Terminal
The Eagle Point Terminal is located in Westville, New Jersey and consists of docks, truck loading facilities and a tank farm. The docks are located on the Delaware River and can accommodate three marine vessels (ships or barges) to receive and deliver crude oil to outbound ships and barges. The tank farm has a total active crude oil storage capacity of approximately 1 million barrels and can receive crude oil via barge, pipeline and rail, and deliver via barge, truck or pipeline, providing customers with access to various markets. The terminal generates revenue primarily by charging fees based on throughput, blending services and storage.
The Midland terminal is located in Midland, Texas and was acquired in November 2016 from Vitol. The facility includes approximately 2 million barrels of crude oil storage, a combined 14 lanes of truck loading and unloading, and will provide access to the Permian Express 2 transportation system.
Crude Oil Acquisition and Marketing
These activities include the acquisition and marketing of crude oil, primarily in the mid-continent United States. The operations are conducted using our assets, which include approximately 370 crude oil transport trucks and approximately 150 crude oil truck unloading facilities, as well as third-party truck, rail and marine assets. Specifically, our crude oil acquisition and marketing activities include:
- Purchasing crude oil at both the wellhead from producers, and in bulk from aggregators at major pipeline interconnections and trading locations
- Storing inventory during contango market conditions (when the price of crude oil for future delivery is higher than current prices)
- Buying and selling crude oil of different grades, at different locations in order to maximize value
- Transporting crude oil using our pipelines, terminals and trucks or, when necessary or cost effective, pipelines, terminals or trucks owned and operated by third parties
- Marketing crude oil to major integrated oil companies, independent refiners and resellers through various types of sale and exchange transactions