Our Crude Oil business consists of an integrated set of pipeline, terminalling, and acquisition and marketing assets that service the movement of crude oil from producers to end-user markets.
Crude Oil Pipelines
The crude oil pipelines consist of approximately 5,900 miles of crude oil trunk and gathering pipelines in the southwest and midwest United States, including our wholly-owned interest in West Texas Gulf and SunVit; and a controlling financial interest in Mid-Valley Pipeline Company ("Mid-Valley"). Additionally, we have equity ownership interests in three crude oil pipelines. Our pipelines provide access to several trading hubs, including the largest trading hub for crude oil in the United States located in Cushing, Oklahoma, and other trading hubs located in Midland, Colorado City and Longview, Texas. Our crude oil pipelines also deliver to and connect with other pipelines that deliver crude oil to a number of refineries.
Revenues throughout our crude oil pipeline systems are generated from tariffs paid by shippers utilizing our transportation services. These tariffs are filed with the Federal Energy Regulatory Commissions ("FERC") and other state regulatory agencies, as applicable.
Southwest United States Pipelines
Our pipelines include crude oil trunk pipelines and crude oil gathering pipelines in Texas. This includes our Permian Express 2 pipeline project which provides takeaway capacity from the Permian Basin, with origins in multiple locations in Western Texas: Midland, Garden City and Colorado City. With an initial capacity of approximately 200 thousand barrels per day, Permian Express 2 began delivery to multiple refiners and markets in the third quarter 2015. In addition, we own and operate a crude oil pipeline and gathering system in Oklahoma. This system contains crude oil trunk pipelines and crude oil gathering pipelines. We have the ability to deliver substantially all of the crude oil gathered on our Oklahoma system to Cushing. We are one of the largest purchasers of crude oil from producers in the state, and our crude oil acquisition and marketing activities business is the primary shipper on our Oklahoma crude oil system.
In the third quarter 2016, the Partnership announced two strategic initiatives which complement our existing infrastructure. Regarding Sunoco Logistics' Midland platform, in November 2016, we completed an acquisition from Vitol, Inc. for an integrated crude oil business in West Texas which provided approximately 2 million barrel crude oil terminal in Midland, TX, a crude oil gathering and mainline pipeline system in the Midland Basin, including a significant acreage dedication from an investment-grade Permian producer, and crude oil inventories related to Vitol, Inc.'s crude oil purchasing and marketing business in West Texas. The acquisition also included the purchase of a 50 percent interest in SunVit Pipeline LLC ("SunVit"), which increased our overall ownership of SunVit to 100 percent. SunVit connects the Midland terminal to our Permian Express 2 pipeline, a key takeaway to bring Permian crude oil to multiple markets. The SunVit pipeline commenced operations in the third quarter 2015. In addition, the Partnership entered into a strategic joint venture with ExxonMobil in which the companies formed a Permian Express Partners LLC to combine certain of their key crude oil logistics assets. Sunoco Logistics contributed its Permian Express 1, Permian Express 2, and Permian Longview and Louisiana Access pipelines. ExxonMobil contributed its Longview to Louisiana and Pegasus pipelines; Hawkins gathering system; an idle pipeline in southern Oklahoma; and its Patoka, Illinois terminal. Sunoco Logistics owns approximately 85 percent of the joint venture. This combination of certain strategic crude oil assets, together with our existing and recently acquired Midland Basin assets, greatly enhances our service capabilities for the Permian Basin, one of the most prolific shale areas with incredible growth opportunities.
Midwest United States Pipelines
We have a controlling financial interest in the Mid-Valley pipeline system which originates in Longview, Texas and pass through Louisiana, Arkansas, Mississippi, Tennessee, Kentucky, and Ohio, and terminates in Samaria, Michigan. This pipeline provides crude oil to a number of refineries, primarily in the midwest United States. In addition, we own a crude oil pipeline that runs from Marysville, Michigan to Toledo, Ohio, and a truck injection point for local production at Marysville. This pipeline receives crude oil from the Enbridge Mainline Pipeline system for delivery to refineries located in Toledo, Ohio and to Marathon's Samaria, Michigan tank farm, which supplies its refinery in Detroit, Michigan.
The Nederland terminal, located on the Sabine-Neches waterway between Beaumont and Port Arthur, Texas, is a large marine terminal providing storage and distribution services for refiners and other large transporters of crude oil and NGLs. The terminal receives, stores, and distributes crude oil and bunker oils (used for fueling ships and other marine vessels), and has a total crude oil storage capacity of approximately 24 million barrels in approximately 130 aboveground storage tanks with individual capacities of up to 660 thousand barrels.
The Nederland terminal can receive crude oil at each of its five ship docks and three barge berths. The five ship docks are capable of receiving over 2 million barrels of crude oil per day. In addition to our crude oil pipelines, the terminal can also receive crude oil through a number of third-party pipelines, including the Department of Energy (“DOE”). The DOE pipelines connect the terminal to the United States Strategic Petroleum Reserve's West Hackberry caverns at Hackberry, Louisiana and Big Hill near Winnie, Texas, which have an aggregate storage capacity of approximately 475 million barrels.
The Nederland terminal can deliver crude oil via pipeline, barge, ship, rail or truck. In total, the terminal is capable of delivering over 2 million barrels of crude oil per day to our crude oil pipelines or a number of third-party pipelines, including the DOE. The Nederland terminal generates crude oil revenues primarily by providing term or spot storage services and throughput capabilities to a number of customers.
Fort Mifflin Terminal Complex
The Fort Mifflin Terminal Complex is located on the Delaware River in Philadelphia and includes the Fort Mifflin Terminal, the Hog Island Wharf, the Darby Creek Tank Farm and connecting pipelines. Revenues are generated at the Fort Mifflin Terminal Complex by charging fees based on throughput.
The Fort Mifflin Terminal contains two ship docks with freshwater drafts and a total storage capacity of approximately 570 thousand barrels. Crude oil enters the Fort Mifflin Terminal primarily from marine vessels on the Delaware River. One Fort Mifflin dock is designed to handle crude oil from very large crude carrier-class ("VLCC") tankers and smaller crude oil vessels.
The other dock can accommodate only smaller crude oil vessels. The Hog Island Wharf is located next to the Fort Mifflin Terminal on the Delaware River and receives crude oil via two ship docks, one of which can accommodate crude oil tankers and smaller crude oil vessels, and the other of which can accommodate some smaller crude oil vessels.
The Darby Creek Tank Farm is a crude oil storage terminal for the Philadelphia refinery, which is operated by Philadelphia Energy Solutions ("PES") under a joint venture with Sunoco, Inc. ("Sunoco"). This facility has a total storage capacity of approximately 3 million barrels. Darby Creek receives crude oil from the Fort Mifflin Terminal and Hog Island Wharf via our pipelines. The tank farm then stores the crude oil and transports it to the Philadelphia refinery via our pipelines.
Eagle Point Terminal
The Eagle Point Terminal is located in Westville, New Jersey and consists of docks, truck loading facilities and a tank farm. The docks are located on the Delaware River and can accommodate three marine vessels (ships or barges) to receive and deliver crude oil to outbound ships and barges. The tank farm has a total active crude oil storage capacity of approximately 1 million barrels and can receive crude oil via barge, pipeline and rail, and deliver via barge, truck or pipeline, providing customers with access to various markets. The terminal generates revenue primarily by charging fees based on throughput, blending services and storage.
Crude Oil Acquisition and Marketing
These activities include the acquisition and marketing of crude oil, primarily in the mid-continent United States. The operations are conducted using our assets, which include approximately 375 crude oil transport trucks and approximately 140 crude oil truck unloading facilities, as well as third-party truck, rail and marine assets. Specifically, our crude oil acquisition and marketing activities include:
- Purchasing crude oil at both the wellhead from producers, and in bulk from aggregators at major pipeline interconnections and trading locations
- Storing inventory during contango market conditions (when the price of crude oil for future delivery is higher than current prices)
- Buying and selling crude oil of different grades, at different locations in order to maximize value
- Transporting crude oil using our pipelines, terminals and trucks or, when necessary or cost effective, pipelines, terminals or trucks owned and operated by third parties
- Marketing crude oil to major integrated oil companies, independent refiners and resellers through various types of sale and exchange transactions